德内-高加索语系

2018-06-11 21:59:12

汉-高加索语系,亦作德内-高加索语系,或译作达内-高加索语系,是一个假设的大语系,包括汉藏语系、布鲁夏斯基语、叶尼塞语系、北高加索语族以及北美的纳-德内语系。其存在还处在争议中,因为大部分的研究在20世纪90年代才开始展开。有时苏美尔语和阿尔冈昆-瓦卡希语系也被归入其中。

目录

  • 1 语系树建议
    • 1.1 斯塔罗斯金的观点
    • 1.2 Bengtson的观点
  • 2 参看
  • 3 注释
  • 4 参考书目

语系树建议

斯塔罗斯金的观点

根据俄罗斯语言学家斯塔罗斯金及他的同事在《巴别塔计划》的共同研究认为,德内-高加索语系的分支语言大约在以下日子以修订语言年代学(Modified glottochronology来估算)里分化1

1. 得内-高加索语系 (公元前8700年)
1.1. 纳-得内语系
1.2. 汉-瓦斯科尼亚语系 (Sino-Vasconic languages,公元前7900年)
1.2.1. 瓦斯科尼亚语系 (Vasconic,见下段)
1.2.2. 汉-高加索语系 (公元前6200年)
1.2.2.1. 布鲁夏斯基语
1.2.2.2. 高加索-汉-叶尼塞语系 (公元前5900年)
1.2.2.2.1. 北高加索语系
1.2.2.2.2. 汉-叶尼塞语系 (公元前5100年)
1.2.2.2.2.1. 叶尼塞语系
1.2.2.2.2.2. 汉藏语系

Bengtson的观点

John D. Bengtson把巴斯克语、高加索语及布鲁夏斯基语组合成为大高加索语系(Macro-Caucasian family)2。根据他的讲法,现时要再加入其他语系为时尚早,因为研究尚未成熟。不过,他留意到苏美尔语在地理上与其西支及东支分享着相同的等语线 3

1. 得内-高加索语系Dené-Caucasian
1.1. 大高加索语系(The Macro-Caucasian family)
1.1.1. 瓦斯科尼亚语系 (巴斯克语)
1.1.2. 北高加索语系
1.1.3. 布鲁夏斯基语(Burushaski)
1.2. 苏美尔语 (Sumerian?)
1.3. 汉藏语系(Sino-Tibetan)
1.4. 叶尼塞语系(Yeniseian)
1.5. 纳-德内语系(Na-Dené)

参看

  • 德内-叶尼塞语系

注释

  1. ^ 参看:The preliminary phylogenetic tree according to the Tower of Babel Project
  2. ^ 见Bengtson 1997a
  3. ^ See Bengtson 1997b

参考书目

  • BENEDICT, Paul K., 1972. Sino-Tibetan: A Conspectus: 103ff; Ed. by J. A. Matisoff. Cambridge University Press.
  • BENGTSON, John D., Materials for a Comparative Grammar of the Dene-Caucasian (Sino-Caucasian) Languages. (PDF), Aspects of Comparative Linguistics 3, Moscow: RSUH Publishers: 45–118, 2008 
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2004. "Some features of Dene-Caucasian phonology (with special reference to Basque)." In Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain (CILL): 33–54.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2003. "Notes on Basque Comparative Phonology." Mother Tongue 8: 21–39.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2002. "The Dene-Caucasian noun prefix *s-." In The Linguist's Linguist: A Collection of Papers in Honour of Alexis Manaster Ramer, ed. by F. Cavoto, pp. 53–57. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1999a. "Review of R.L. Trask, The History of Basque." In Romance Philology 52 (Spring): 219–224.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1999b. "Wider genetic affiliations of the Chinese language." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 27 (1): 1–12.*BENGTSON, John D., 1994. "Edward Sapir and the ‘Sino-Dene’ Hypothesis." Anthropological Science (Tokyo) 102: 207-230.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1998. "Caucasian and Sino-Tibetan: A Hypothesis of S. A. Starostin." General Linguistics, Vol. 36, no. 1/2, 1998 (1996). Pegasus Press, University of North Carolina, Asheville, North Carolina.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1997a. "Ein Vergleich von Buruschaski und Nordkaukasisch A comparison of B. and North Caucasian." Georgica 20: 88–94.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1997b. "The riddle of Sumerian: A Dene-Caucasic language?" Mother Tongue 3: 63–74.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 1996. "A Final (?) Response to the Basque Debate in Mother Tongue 1." (see External links below)
  • BERGER, Hermann, 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager. 3 volumes. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • BERGER, Hermann, 1974. Das Yasin-Burushaski (Werchikwar). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • BOMHARD, Allan R., 1997. "On the origin of Sumerian." Mother Tongue 3: 75-93.
  • CATFORD, J. C., 1977. "Mountain of Tongues: The languages of the Caucasus." Annual Review of Anthropology 6: 283-314.
  • DIAKONOFF, Igor M., 1997. "External Connections of the Sumerian Language." Mother Tongue 3: 54-63.
  • ENRICO, John. 2004. Toward Proto–Na-Dene. Anthropological Linguistics 46(3).229–302.
  • HANDEL, Zev Joseph. The Medial Systems of Old Chinese and Proto-Sino-Tibetan (PDF). Ph. D. thesis. University of California at Berkeley. 1998 2008-01-28. 
  • MORVAN, Michel, 1996. Les origines linguistiques du basque. Bordeaux University Press.
  • CHIRIKBA, Vyacheslav A., 1985. "Баскский и северокавказские языки Basque and the North Caucasian languages." In Древняя Анатолия Ancient Anatolia, pp. 95-105. Moscow: Nauka.
  • NIKOLA(Y)EV, Sergei L., 1991. "Sino-Caucasian Languages in America." In Shevoroshkin (1991), pp. 42–66.
  • PEIROS, Ilia, and STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 1996. "A comparative vocabulary of five Sino-Tibetan languages". University of Melbourne Department of Linguistics and Applied Linguistics.
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1990a). Die Na-Dene-Sprachen im Lichte der Greenberg-Klassifikation The Na-Dene languages in the light of the Greenberg classification. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 64)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1990b) (in two parts). Vogelnamen des Tlingit und Haida. Materialien zu ihrer sprachhistorischen Erforschung sowie Auflistung der Vogelarten von Alaska Bird names of Tlingit and Haida. Materials to their language-historical investigation and list of the bird species of Alaska. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Hefte 67–68)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1988). Verwandtschafts- und andere Personenbezeichnungen im Tlingit und Haida: Versuch ihrer sprachhistorischen Deutung Kinship and other person terms in Tlingit and Haida: attempt at their language-historical interpretation. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 62)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1986a). Die Zahlwörter des Haida in sprachvergleichender Sicht The numerals of Haida in comparative view. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 47)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1986b). Säugetiernamen des Haida und Tlingit: Materialien zu ihrer historischen Erforschung Mammal names of Haida and Tlingit: materials to their historical investigation. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 50)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1985a). Sprachhistorische Untersuchung einiger Tiernamen im Haida (Fische, Stachelhäuter, Weichtiere, Gliederfüßer, u.a.) Language-historical investigation of some animal names in Haida (fish, echinoderms, mollusks, arthropods, and others. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 39)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1985b) (in four parts). Das Haida als Na-Dene-Sprache Haida as a Na-Dene language. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Hefte 43–46)
  • RUBICZ, R., MELVIN, K. L., CRAWFORD, M.H. 2002. Genetic Evidence for the phylogenetic relationship between Na-Dene and Yeniseian speakers. Human Biology, Dec 1 2002 74 (6) 743-761.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 2001a. "Il Dene-caucasico: una nuova famiglia linguistica." Pluriverso 2: 76–85.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 2001b. “Taxonomic Controversies in the Twentieth Century,” in New Essays on the Origin of Language, ed. by Jürgen Trabant and Sean Ward, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter, 197–214.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 1998a. "Dene-Caucasian: A New Linguistic Family," in The Origins and Past of Modern Humans—Towards Reconciliation, ed. by Keiichi Omoto and Phillip V. Tobias, Singapore: World Scientific, 231–46.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 1998b. "The Origin of the Na-Dene." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. 95: 13994–13996.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 1998c. "The Origin of the Na-Dene." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95: 13994–96.
  • RUHLEN, Merritt. 1997. "Une nouvelle famille de langues: le déné-caucasien," Pour la Science (Dossier, October), 68–73.
  • SCHMIDT, Karl Horst, 1994. "Class Inflection and Related Categories in the Caucasus." In Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR, ed. by H. I. Aronson, pp. 185-192. Columbus, OH: Slavica.
  • SCHULZE-FÜRHOFF, Wolfgang, 1992. "How Can Class Markers Petrify? Towards a Functional Diachrony of Morphological Subsystems in the East Caucasian Languages." In The Non-Slavic Languages of the USSR: Linguistic Studies, Second Series, ed. by H. I. Aronson, pp. 183-233. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
  • SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaliy V., 2004. "Proto-Salishan and Proto-North-Caucasian Consonants: a few cognate sets." in Nostratic Centennial Conference: the Pécs Papers. ed. by. I. Hegedűs & P. Sidwell, pp. 181–191. Pécs: Lingua Franca Group.
  • SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaliy V., 2003. "Salishan and North Caucasian." Mother Tongue 8: 39–64.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A. and Orel, V., 1989. "Etruscan and North Caucasian." Explorations in Language Macrofamilies. Ed. V. Shevoroshkin. Bochum Publications in Evolutionary Cultural Semiotics. 23. Bochum.
  • SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaliy V., 1999 "Nostratic and Sino-Caucasian: two ancient language phyla." In From Neanderthal to Easter Island (Festschrift W. W. Schuhmacher), ed. by N. A. Kirk & P. J. Sidwell. pp. 44–74. Melbourne.
  • SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaly V., 1998 Symposium on Nostratic at Cambridge (JPEG), Mother Tongue (ASLIP), Fall 1998, (31): 28–32 2008-01-28 
  • SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaliy V., 1991. (Ed.) Dene-Sino-Caucasian Languages. Bochum: Brockmeyer.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 2004–2005. Sino-Caucasian comparative phonology & Sino-Caucasian comparative glossary.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 2002. "A response to Alexander Vovin's criticism of the Sino-Caucasian theory." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 30.1:142–153.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 2000. "Genesis of the Long Vowels in Sino-Tibetan." In Проблемы изучения дальнего родства языков на рыбеже третьего тысячелетия: Доклады и тезисы международной конференции РГГУ Problems of the research on the distant origin of languages at the beginning of the third millennium: Talks and abstracts of the international conference of the RGGU, Moscow 2000.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 1996. "Word-final resonants in Sino-Caucasian." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 24.2: 281–311. (written for the 3rd International Conference on Chinese Linguistics in Hongkong in 1994)
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., 1995. "Old Chinese Basic Vocabulary: A Historical Perspective." In The Ancestry of the Chinese Language (Journal of Chinese Linguistics Monograph No. 8), ed. by W. S.-Y. Wang, pp. 225–251. Berkeley, CA.
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., Preface (PDF), (编) Sergei A., Starostin; Nikola(y)ev, Sergei L., A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary, Moscow: Asterisk Publishers: 7–199, 1994 
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., On the Hypothesis of a Genetic Connection Between the Sino-Tibetan Languages and the Yeniseian and North Caucasian Languages, (编) SHEVOROSHKIN, Vitaliy V., Dene-Sino-Caucasian languages: materials from the First International Interdisciplinary Symposium on Language and Prehistory, Ann Harbor: Bochum: Brockmeyer: 12–41, 1991  Translation of Starostin 1984
  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A., Гипотеза о генетических связях синотибетских языков с енисейскими и северокавказскими языками A hypothesis on the genetic relationships of the Sino-Tibetan languages with the Yeniseian and the North Caucasian languages, (编) Vardu, I. F., Лингвистическая реконструкция и древнейшая история Востока Linguistic reconstruction and the ancient history of the East, Moscow: Академия наук, Институт востоковедения Institute of Orientalistics of the USSR Academy of Sciences: 19–38, 1984  See Starostin 1991 for English translation
  • The preliminary phylogenetic tree (PNG), The Tower of Babel (Evolution of Human Language Project), 2006-05-28 2008-01-28 
  • TRASK, R. L., 1999. "Why should a language have any relatives?" Pages 157–176 in: C. Renfrew & D. Nettle (eds.): Nostratic: Examining a Linguistic Macrofamily, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge (UK).
  • TRASK, R. L., 1997. "Basque and the Superfamilies". The History of Basque, Routledge, London. (See especially pages 403–408.)
  • TRASK, R. L., 1995. "Basque and Dene-Caucasian: A Critique from the Basque Side". Mother Tongue 1:3–82.
  • TRASK, R. L., 1994–1995. "Basque: The Search for Relatives (Part 1)." Dhumbadji! 2:3–54.
  • VAJDA, Edward J. (2004): Ket. (Languages of the World, Materials, 204) München: LINCOM Europa
  • VAJDA, Edward J. (2002): The origin of phonemic tone in Yeniseic. CLS 37 (Parasession on Arctic languages): 305-320
  • VAJDA, Edward J. (2001a): Toward a typology of position class: comparing Navajo and Ket verb morphology. Read at: SSILA Summer Meeting, July 7, 2001
  • VAJDA, Edward J. (2001b): Linguistic relations across Bering Strait: Siberia and the Native Americans. Read at: Bureau of Faculty Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, WA, March 8, 2001
  • VAJDA, Edward J. 2000. Evidence for a genetic connection between Na-Dene and Yeniseian (Central Siberia). – Paper read at: January 2000 meeting of Society for the Study of Indigenous Languages of America (SSILA) and Linguistic Society of America (LSA)
  • VAJDA, Edward J. 2000a. Yeniseian and Na-Dene: evidence for a genetic relationship. – Paper read at: 38th Conference on American Indian Languages (SSILA), Chicago, Jan. 2000
  • VAJDA, Edward J. 2000b. Yeniseian and Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit.' – Paper read at: Linguistics Department Colloquium, University of British Columbia, Mar. 2000
  • VAJDA, Edward J. 2000c. Ket verb morphology and its parallels with Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit: evidence of a genetic link. – Paper read at: Athabaskan Language Conference, Moricetown, BC, June 9, 2000
  • VAJDA, Edward J. 2000d. Athabaskan-Eyak-Tlingit and Yeniseian: lexical and phonological parallels. Read at: 39th Conference on American Indian Languages, San Francisco, Nov. 14-18, 2000
  • VAN DRIEM, George, 2001. "The Languages of the Himalayas." Brill, Leiden.
  • VOVIN, Alexander, 2002. "Building a 'bum-pa for Sino-Caucasian." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 30.1: 154–171.
  • VOVIN, Alexander, 1997. "The Comparative Method and Ventures Beyond Sino-Tibetan." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 25.2: 308–336.
  • WERNER, Heinrich K. (2004): Zur jenissejisch-indianischen Urverwandtschaft On the Yeniseian-American Indian primordial relationship. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz

上一篇:塞内卡语
下一篇:休伦族